Legged Locomotion Seminar 16-899E
Course Name: Seminar on Legged Locomotion
Course Number 16-899 E
Day: Monday, First meeting Jan. 13
Instructors: Christopher Atkeson, Jessica Hodgins
The goal of this seminar is to understand and move forward the state of the
art in robot legged locomotion. The NSF has funded a human-sized bipedal
robot for CMU, and we need to be ready to control it when it arrives.
We also have part of the Rhex legged locomotion project here at CMU
(/www.ri.cmu.edu/projects/project_485.html). Participants will read and
present key papers, explore research issues in simulation, and ideally
test ideas on actual robots. We are also interested in insights into
human locomotion and how to program graphical characters.
Other courses, reading groups
LDG group at ATR
MIT Leg Lab
Readings (hardcopy readings are available outside the graphics lab NSH 4228):
J. 1991, Biped gait transitions. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. pp. 2091-2097.
Movie (Avi Cinepak 126Mb)
- Miura, H. and I. Shimoyama, Dynamic Walk of a Biped, IJRR 3(2):60-74, 1984 (hardcopy)
- McMahon, T. A., Mechanics of Locomotion, IJRR 3(2):4-28 (hardcopy) I will focus on characteristics of walking: pages 4-9.
- Optional: For background on human and animal locomotion: Alexander, R. McN., The Gaits of Bipedal and Quadrupedal Animals, IJRR 3(2):49-59, 1984 (hardcopy)
Garth Zeglin: Passive Dynamic Walking
Useful web sites, most have movies, some have software:
- McMahon, T. A., Mechanics of Locomotion, IJRR 3(2):4-28 (hardcopy) ballistic walking: pages 9-12.
- McGeer, T., Passive Dynamic Walking, IJRR, pp. 62-82, 1990 (hardcopy)
1837 Weber and Weber: Measure corpses and show that natural frequency of leg when swinging as compound pendulum is similar to cadence in live walking.
Feb 10: meet in NSH3305
Readings for more info:
Anderson FC, Pandy MG (2001). Static and dynamic optimization solutions for gait are practically equivalent. Journal of Biomechanics 34: 153-161. (hardcopy)
Chapters 5, 7, and 8 of Hardt's thesis: (PDF)
Multibody Dynamical Algorithms, Numerical Optimal Control, with Detailed Studies in the Control of Jet Engine Compressors and Biped Walking
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Intelligent Systems, Robotics, and Control)
University of California San Diego, June 1999.
- Anderson and Pandy, Dynamic Optimization of Human Walking, J. Biom. Eng.
- Read all of Hardt's thesis:
Available from this page
Uluc Saranli: Rhex
Readings and Links
Mar 3: no class.
Jonathan Hurst: Mech/Bio
- McMahon, T. A., Mechanics of Locomotion, IJRR 3(2):4-28 (hardcopy) running part: pages 12-28.
Design of Components for Programmable Passive Impedance,
K. F. Laurin-Kovitz, J. E. Colgate, and S. D. R. Canes,
Running in the real world: adjusting leg stiffness for different surfaces,
Daniel P. Ferris, Micky Louie and Claire T. Farley,
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (1998) 265, 989-994.
Series Elastic Actuators,
G. A. Pratt and M. W. Williamson, 1995.
Hodgins: Using Motion Capture to Drive Robots
Imitating Human Dance Motions through Motion Structure Analysis,
Nakazawa, Kanaoka, Ikeuchi, Yokoi,
Making Feasible Walking Motion of Humanoid Robots From Human
Motion Capture Data,
DASGUPTA and NAKAMURA,
Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data,
Paul S. A. Reitsma,
Jessica K. Hodgins,
Nancy S. Pollard,
Rizzi: Intermittant Control and Templates
PDF is available via AFS as indicated below.
Author(s): Ohta, H. ; Yamakita, M. ; Furuta, K.
Affiliation: Dept. of Comput. Sci., Tokyo
Inst. of Technol., Japan
Title: From passive to active dynamic walking
Source: International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear
Control 11, no. 3, (March 2001) : 287-303 Journal Code: Int. J.
Robust Nonlinear Control (UK)
Additional Info: Wiley
Author(s): Grizzle, J.W. ; Abba, G. ; Plestan, F.
Affiliation: Control Syst. Lab., Michigan
Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Title: Asymptotically stable walking for biped robots:
analysis via systems with impulse effects
Source: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 46, no. 1,
(Jan. 2001) : 51-64 Journal Code: IEEE Trans. Autom. Control (USA)
Additional Info: IEEE
Author(s): Westervelt, E.R. ; Grizzle, J.W. ; Koditschek, D.E.
Affiliation: Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci.
Dept., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Title: Hybrid zero dynamics of planar biped walkers
Source: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 48, no. 1,
(Jan. 2003) : 42-56 Journal Code: IEEE Trans. Autom. Control (USA)
Additional Info: IEEE
Author(s): Klavins, E. ; Koditschek, D.E.
Affiliation: Dept. of Comput. Sci.,
California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA, USA
Title: Phase regulation of decentralized cyclic robotic
Source: International Journal of Robotics Research 21, no.
3, (March 2002) : 257-75 Journal Code: Int. J. Robot. Res. (USA)
Additional Info: Sage Publications
Chris Atkeson: Dynamic Programming Approaches to Controller Design
Joel Chestnut: Gait Transitions
Ethan T Aibo/quadruped
Octavio Juarez: Dancing
Kuffner:planning, zmp filters
- Honda paper from ASI2001 outside graphics lab door
Planning Walking Patterns for a Biped Robot, Qiang Huang, Kazuhito Yokoi, Shuuji Kajita, Kenji Kaneko, Hirohiko Arai, Noriho Koyachi, and Kazuo Tanie,
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 17, NO. 3, JUNE 2001
Synthesis of a Walking Primitive Database for a Humanoid Robot using Optimal Control Techniques, J. Denk and G. Schmidt
Foot rotation indicator (FRI) point:
A new gait planning tool to evaluate postural stability of biped robots.
Running Pattern Generation for a Humanoid Robot Shuuji Kajita (AIST), Takashi Nagasaki (U.of Tsukuba), Kazuhito Yokoi, Kenji Kaneko and Kazuo Tanie (AIST),
A Realtime Pattern Generator for Biped Walking, Shuuji Kajita, Fumio Kanehiro, Kenji Kaneko, Kiyoshi Fujiwara, Kazuhito Yokoi and Hirohisa Hirukawa ICRA2002
All the topics we could think of.
See AIBO Biped Locomotion
Make AIBO stand up on its hind legs and balance (beg).
Make AIBO walk on three legs (limp).
Make AIBO walk on two legs.
Assignment 1: Find a control scheme that minimizes the cost for walking
for 20 seconds for the "compass" or "stiff-legged" biped. You can use
the software below, or you can write your own. The cost function is
defined in the software below (see compass1.c).
compass.sd description of robot for SDFAST
compass_sar.c SDFAST output
compass_dyn.c SDFAST output
sdlib.c standard SDFAST support routines
compass1.c my interface to SDFAST
demo-policy1.c demo program to run a policy (controller)
demo-pdw.c demo program to run passive dynamic walking (sideways gravitational force simulates tilted walkway)
compass1.h .h file
compass1-policy.c a simple policy (controller)
compass1-policy.h .h file
compass1-graphics.c X11 graphics.
no-graphics.c compile with no-graphics.c to run on non-X11 systems.
useful.c some useful routines.
Design an "intuitive" (Raibert style) controller for the compass biped.
Demonstrate the compass biped passive dynamic walking generated by the
demo-pdw.c demo program is stable (ideally by estimating eigenvalues
Find the maximally stable passive dynamic walking pattern for the compass
biped (define stable).
Find the maximally robust passive dynamic walking pattern for the compass
biped (define robust).