A.I. Storytelling in Virtual Worlds







Week 1: Introduction and narratology

  • Bal. 2004. Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Chapter 1.
  • Branigan. Narrative Comprehension and Film. Chapter 3.
  • Ryan. Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence. Chapters 1-3.

Week 2: Narrative psychology

  • Bruner. 1991. The Narrative Construction of Reality. Critical Inquiry, 18(1), 1-21.
  • Gerrig. Experiencing Narrative Worlds. Chapter 1.
  • Green, Brock. The Role of Transportation in the Persausiveness of Public Narratives. Journal of Personality ad Social Psychology, 79(5), 701-721.
  • Trabasso, Secco, Van den Broek. 1984. Causal Cohesion and Story Coherence.
  • Graesser, Singer, Trabasso. 1994. Constructing Inferences During Narrative Text Comprehension. Psychological Review, 101(3), 371-395.
  • Graesser, Lang, Roberts. 1991. Question Answering in the Context of Stories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120(3), 254-277.
  • Gerrig. Experiencing Narrative Worlds. Chapter 3.
  • Gerrig, Bernardo. 1994. Readers as Problem-Solvers in the Experience of Suspense. Poetics, 22, 459-472.

Week 3: AI in virtual worlds

(August 31: begin student led discussions.)

  • Bruckman. 1990. The Combinatorics of Storytelling: Mystery Train Interactive. Unpublished Manuscript.
  • Bates. Virtual Reality, Art, and Entertainment. Presence: The Journal of Tele-operators and Virtual Environments, 1(1).
  • Kelso, Wehyrauch, Bates. 1993. Dramatic Presence. Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2(1).
  • Blumberg, Galyean. 1995. Multi-Level Direction of Autonomous Creatures for Real-Time Virtual Environments.
  • Doyle, Hayes-Roth. 1997. Agents in Annotated Worlds.
  • Johnson, Rickel, Lester. 2000. Animated Pedagogical Agents: Face-to-Face Interaction in Interactive Learning Environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Week 4: Story understanding

(Suggested background reading: Schank and Riesbeck. 1981. The Theory Behind the Programs: Conceptual Dependency. In Schank and Riesbeck (Eds.) Inside Computer Understanding: Five Programs Plus Miniatures.)

  • Cullingford. 1981. SAM. In Schank and Riesbeck (Eds.) Inside Computer Understanding: Five Programs Plus Miniatures.
  • Wilensky. 1981. PAM. In Schank and Riesbeck (Eds.) Inside Computer Understanding: Five Programs Plus Miniatures.
  • Lehnert. 1982. Plot Units: A Narrative Summarization Strategy. In Lehnert and Ringle (Eds.) Strategies for Natural Language Processing

Week 5: Story generation

  • Meehan. TALE-SPIN. 1981. In Schank and Riesbeck (Eds.) Inside Computer Understanding: Five Programs Plus Miniatures.
  • Lebowitz. 1984. Creating Characters in a Storytelling Universe. Poetics, 13.
  • Cavazza, Charles, Mead. 2002. Planning Characters' Behavior in Interactive Storytelling. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation, 13.
  • Lebowtiz. 1985. Story Telling as Planning and Learning, Poetics, 14.

Week 6: Story generation and Discourse Generation

(September 22: review of planning)

  • Perez y Perez, Sharples. 2004. Three Computer-Based Models of Storytelling: BRUTUS, MINSTREL and MEXICA. Knowledge Based Systems Journal, 17(1).

(September 24: Class cancelled)

Week 7: Discourse Generation and Virtual Cinematography

(September 29: project teams formed)

  • Gervás P, Díaz-Agudo B, Peinado F, Hervás R. 2005. Story Plot Generation based on CBR. Knowledge Based Systems. 18
  • Riedl, Young. 2004. An Intent-Driven Planner for Multi-Agent Story Generation. Proceedings of the 3rd International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems.
  • Mann, Thompson. 1988. Rhetorical Structure Theory. Text, 8(3).
  • Moore, Paris. 1994. Planning text for advisory dialogues: Capturing intentional, rhetorical and attentional information. Computational Linguistics, 19(4)

Week 8: Discourse Generation

(October 6: Holiday)

  • Cheong, Young. 2008. Narrative Generation for Suspense: Modeling and Evaluation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling.
  • Bae, Young. 2008. A Use of Flashback and Foreshadowing for Surprise Arousal in Narrative Using a Plan-Based Approach, Proceedings of the International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling.

Week 9: TBD

Week 10: Virtual cinematography

(October 20: Panel on How to Think About Narrative and Interactivity, Skiles 002)

  • Montfort. 2007. Ordering Events in Interactive Fiction Narratives. Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Intelligent Narrative Technologies.
  • Bares, Lester. 1999. Intelligent Multi-shot Visualization Intefaces for Dynamic 3D Worlds. Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces.
  • He, Cohen, Salesin. 1996. The Virtual Cinematographer: A Paradigm for Automatic Real-Time Camera Control and Directing. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '96.

Week 11: Virtual cinematography and Interactive Storytelling

  • Thomlinson, Blumberg, and Nain. 2000. Expressive Autonomous Cinematography for Interactive Virtual Environments. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Autonomous Agents.
  • Jhala, Young. 2006. Representational Requirements for a Plan Based Approach to Automated Camera Control. Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment.
  • Elson, Riedl. 2007. A Lightweight Intelligent Virtual Cinematography System for Machinima Production. Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment
  • Nelson, Mateas. 2005. Search-Based Drama Management in the Interactive Fiction Anchorhead. Proceedings of the First Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference (AIIDE-05).
  • Mateas, Stern. 2002. Architecture, Authorial Idioms and Early Observations of the Interactive Drama Façade. Technical report CMU-CS-02-198.

Week 12: Interactive storytelling

  • Magerko and Laird. 2004. Mediating the Tension between Plot and Interaction. AAAI Workshop on Challenges of Game AI.
  • Riedl et al. 2008. Dynamic Experience Management in Virtual Worlds for Entertainment, Education, and Training. International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications, Special Issue on Agent Based Systems for Human Learning, vol. 4(2).

Week 13: Interactive storytelling and storytelling in learning

  • Si, Marsella, Pynadath. 2005. Thespian: Using Multi-Agent Fitting to Craft Interactive Drama. Proceedings of the International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.

(Background reading for Nov. 12: Andresen. 2004. Learning in “As-If” Worlds: Cognition in Drama in Education. Theory into Practice, 43(4).)

  • Storytelling in learning.

Week 14: Storytelling in games

  • West. 2008. Intelligent Mistakes: How to Incorporate Stupidity Into Your AI Code. Game Developer Magazine - Digital Edition.
  • Liden. 2003. Artificial Stupidiy: The Art of Intentional Mistakes. AI Game Programming Wisdom 2. 41-48.
  • Roberts, Riedl, Isbell. 2009. Beyond Adversarial: The Case for Game AI as Storytelling. Proceedings of the 2009 Conference of the Digital Games Research Association.

Week 15: Computational creativity

  • Boden. 2009. Computer Models of Creativity. AI Magazine.
  • Wiggins. 2006. Searching for Computational Creativity. New Generation Computing, 24.
  • Ritchie. 2001. Assessing Creativity. Proceedings of AISB Symposium on AI and Creativity in Arts and Science.

(Holiday: November 26)

Week 16: Project completion time

Exam Week

(December 11: Final projects demo during exam period)