Ph.D. in Computer Science - Learning Sciences and Technology Body of Knowledge

Note: this is the list for students in the computer science PhD program. HCC PhD students please study the HCC qualifier reading list.

Theories of Learning and Education
  • Bransford et al (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School; expanded edition.Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Please make sure to get the correct edition--other editions are quite different.
    • Chapter 2, "How Experts Differ from Novices."
    • Chapter 3, "Learning and Transfer."
  • Papert, S. (1991). Situating constructionism. In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism (pp. 1-11). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Company.
  • Papert, Seymour (1980). "Mindstorms." New York: Basic Books, pp. vi-viii, 1-54. (Preface, Chapter 1, Chapter 2).
  • Turkle, S., & Papert, S. (1991). Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete. In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism (pp. 161-192). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  • Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 453-494). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.
  • Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Guzdial, M., & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist, 26(3 & 4), 369-398.
  • Koschmann, T., Kelson, A., Feltovich, P., & Barrows, H. (1996). Computer-supported problem-based learning: A principled approach to the use of computers in collaborative learning. In T. Koschmann (Ed.),CSCL: Theory and Practice of an Emerging Paradigm . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [FIRST HALF ONLY, ON DEFINITION AND THEORY OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING.]
  • Barron, B. J. S., Schwartz, D. L., Vye, N. J., Moore, A., Petrosino, A., Zech, L., Bransford, J. D., & Vanderbilt, T. C. a. T. G. a. (1998). Doing with understanding: Lessons from research on problem- and project-based learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7(3&4), 271-310.
  • Wertsch, James V (1988). Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    • Chapter 3, "The Social Origins of Higher Mental Functions."
    • Chapter 6, "Semiotic Mechanisms in Vygotsky's Genetic Law of Cultural Development."
  • Hutchins, Edwin (1985). "How a Cockpit Remembers Its Speeds." Cognitive Science 19, 265-288.
  • Kolodner, J. L. (1997). "Educational implications of analogy: A view from case-based reasoning." American Psychologist, 52, 57-66.
  • Janet L. Kolodner, Paul J. Camp, David Crismond, Barbara Fasse, Jackie Gray, Jennifer Holbrook, Sadhana Puntambekar, and Mike Ryan. (2003). "Problem-Based Learning Meets Case-Based Reasoning in the Middle School Science Classroom: Putting Learning by Design (TM) Into Practice," Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(1).
  • Holdaway, Don (1979). "Foundations of Literacy." New York: Ashton, Scholastic, pp. 11-80.
  • Greeno, J.G., Collins, A.M., and Resnick, L.B., (1996) "Cognition and Learning," Handbook of Educational Psychology.
  • Lave, Jean and Etienne Wenger (1991). "Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation." New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schon, Donald (1987). "Educating the Reflective Practitioner." San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, pp. 100-156 (chapters 5 and 6).
  • Shaffer, D.W., & Resnick, M. (1999). "Thick" Authenticity: New Media and Authentic Learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 10(2), 195-215.
  • Kolodner, J. L., Owensby, J., & Guzdial, M. (2000). "Theory and Practice of Case-based Learning Aids." In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates: Mahwah, New Jersey. 215-242.
  • Scardamalia, M. (2002). "Collective cognitive responsibility for the advancement of knowledge." In B. Smith (Ed.) Liberal education in a knowledge society (pp. 67-98). Chicago: Open Court.
  • Flower, Linda. (1994) "Literate Acts" from The Construction of Negotiated Meaning.
  • Rogoff, Barbara (1994). "Developing Understanding of the Idea of Communities of Learners." Mind, Culture, and Activity 1:4, pp. 209-229.
  • Resnick, M. (1996). Beyond the centralized mindset. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 5(1), 1-22.
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
  • Bruckman, Amy (1998). "Community Support for Constructionist Learning." Computer Supported Collaborative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing 7: 47-86.
  • Roschelle, J. (1992). Learning by Collaborating: Convergent Conceptual Change. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(3), 235-276.
  • Puntambekar et al., Intra-group and Intergroup: An Exploration of Learning with Complementary Collaboration Tools, Proceedings of CSCL-97
  • Hewitt, Jim. (2004). "An Exploration of Community in a Knowledge Forum Classroom, An Activity System Analysis." In Designing for Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning, edited by S. Barab, R. Kling and J. Gray. New York, Cambridge University Press: 210-238.
  • Dan Suthers. (2001.) "Towards a Systematic Study of Representational Guidance for Collaborative Learning Discourse" Journal of Universal Computer Science 7(3).
  • Guzdial, M., Ludovice, P., Realff, M., Morley, T., and Carroll, K. (2002). "When Collaboration Does't Work." 
Culture of Learning
  • Songer, Nancy (1996). "Exploring Learning Opportunities in Coordinated Network-Enhanced Classrooms: A case of kids as global scientists." The Journal of the Learning Sciences 5(4): 297-327.
  • Tabak, I., & Reiser, B. J. (1997). Complementary roles of software-based scaffolding and teacher-student interactions in inquiry learning. In R. Hall, N. Miyake, & N. Enyedy (Eds.), CSCL'97 Proceedings (pp. 289-298). Toronto: AACE.
  • Kohl, Herbert (1994). "I won't learn from you." New York: The New Press, pp. 1-32.
  • Resnick, Mitchel and Natalie Rusk. "The Computer Clubhouse: Preparing for Life in a Digital World." IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, no. 3-4, pp. 431-440.
Students as Programmers
  • Richard Noss and Celia Hoyles (1996). Windows on Mathematical Meanings. (chapter 7 and chapter 9). Kluwer Academic Publishing.
  • Guzdial, M. (2004.) "Programming Environments for Novices." In Fincher, S. and Petre, M. (2004.) Computer Science Education Research. Taylor & Francis Group, plc, London, UK. pp. 127-154.
  • Turkle, Sherry (1984). "Adolescence and Identity: Finding Yourself in the Machine." In "The Seond Self: Computers and the Human Spirit." New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 137-162.
Design of Learning Environments
  • Guzdial, M. (1995). Software-realized scaffolding to facilitate programming for science learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 4(1), 1-44.
  • Chris Quintana and Brian J. Reiser and Elizabeth A. Davis and Joseph Krajcik and Eric Fretz and Ravit Golan Duncan and Eleni Kyza and Daniel Edelson and Elliot Soloway. (2004.) "A Scaffolding Design Framework for Software to Support Science Inquiry" Journal of the Learning Sciences. 13(3). pp. 337-386.
  • Soloway, E., M. Guzdial, K. Hay (1994). "Learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century." Interactions 1(2): 36-48.
  • Edelson, D., D.N. Gordin, R.D. Pea (1999) "Addressing the Challenges of Inquiry-Based Learning through Technology and Curriculum Design." Journal of the Learning Sciences. In press, and available from Mark or Allyana.
  • Resnick, M., A. Bruckman, F. Martin (1996). "Pianos not Stereos: Creating computational construction kits."Interactions 3(5): 41-50.
  • Schank, R. C., Fano, A., Bell, B., & Jona, M. (1994). The design of goal-based scenarios. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(4), 305-346.
Evaluation of Learning Environments and Learning Outcomes
  • Fincher, S. and Petre, M. (Eds.) (2004.) Computer Science Education Research. Taylor & Francis Group, plc, London, UK. All of Part One is relevant to how to conduct LS&T research (minus the CS Ed specific bits), but in particular:
    • Chapter 5, "Provide a Coherent Explicit Chain of Reasoning"
    • Chapter 5, "Use Methods that Permit Direct Investigation of the Question"
    • Chapter 7, "Replicate and Generalize Across Studies"
  • Brown, A. L. (1992). "Design Experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings." The Journal of the Learning Sciences 2(2): 141-178.
  • Geertz, Clifford (1973). "Thick Description: Towards an Interpretive Theory of Culture." In Interpretation of Cultures. USA: Basic Books.
  • Chi, Michelene. "Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: A Practial Guide." Journal of the Learning Sciences 6(3), 271-315.
  • Gay, L.R. and Peter Airasian (2000). "Educational research." New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chapters 1, 4-5, 8-11.
  • Seidman, Irving (1991). "Interviewing as Qualitative Research." New York: Teacher's College Press.


For the below systems, students are expected to know the software: By experience, from readings, and if possible, preferably both.

These are the kinds of questions that we want you to be able to answer about these questions.

  • Who is the user/student audience?
  • What's the desired outcome from (and with) use of the software?
  • Why do this system? What were the related predecessor systems? How is this system different?
  • Were there unique technologies used here that weren't used previously?
  • What evidence do we have about use of the system? About learning with the system?
  • StarLogo
  • Moose Crossing
  • LBD/Smile
  • Model-It!
  • Symphony
  • My World
  • Genscope
  • Kidsim/Cocoa
  • CoWeb/Swiki
  • SimCalc
  • Knowledge Forum/CSILE
  • PAT (Pittsburgh Algebra Tutor)
  • Lisp and/or Geometry Tutors
  • Sickle Cell Counselor
  • Math Forum