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Neural Music References.

1. Barrass, S. & Kramer, G. (1999). Using sonification. Multimedia Systems, 7, 23-31.

a. Summary: sonification is the use of synthetic non-verbal sounds to represent numerical data and aid information processing activities. Sonification helps those with special needs to either; have additional cues other than visual as relating to the task, or aid in navigation of a GUI. Increased cues ( including audio ) help in times of increased overlapping events. It is stated that no solid method for data to sound sonification exists due to the problems understanding how one perceives sounds.

2. Tecchio, F., Salustri, C., Thaut, M. H., Pasqualetti, P., & Rossini, P. M. (2000). Conscious and preconscious adaptation to rhythmic auditory stimuli: a magnetoencephalographic study of human brain responses. Springer-Verlag Research Article.

a. Summary: The auditory cortex is shown through experiments to discriminate time characteristics of incoming rhythmic stimuli. Findings suggest that the auditory cortex contribute directly to synchronization of motor output in particular the connection between "thalamic projections shared with supplementary motor area, as observed in musicians tapping different rhythms." Also suggested that local sensory memory retains audio information for approx. 10s and is sensitive "of at least 2% in the 2Hz rhythmicity."

3. Leplatre, G. & Brewster, S. A. (2000). Designing Non-Speech Sounds to Support Navigation in Mobile Phone Menus. In Cook, P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Auditory Display, ICAD '00. Palo Alto, CA: ICAD. Web publication by the International Community for Auditory Display.

a. Summary: Essentially describes how non-speech audio is integrated into hierarchical menu structures where visual feedback is limited. Aside from the technical application, it expresses the benefit of non-speech audio cues emanating from a low feedback channel (in our case touch sensitivity).

4. Walker B.N., Kramer, G., Lane, D.M. (2000). Psychophysical Scaling of Sonification Mappings. In Cook, P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Auditory Display, ICAD '00. Palo Alto, CA: ICAD. Web publication by the International Community for Auditory Display.

a. Summary: A paper detailing experiments designed to explore data-display mappings as it relates to sonification. Results were delayed for further research. Examined some basic principles in creating a method to determining the 'best' mappings, etc…

5. Ciuffreda, K.J. (1997). Eye movement auditory biofeedback therapy for nystamus: past, present, future. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 19997. Proceedings of the International Conference of the IEEE, 6, 2766-2770.

a. Summary: biofeedback is usually given to a patient immediately concerning normally unnoticed processes, or at least beyond their awareness. In this study it shows the application of audio information to clinical patients with Nystagmus, an ocular abnormality. The patients were shown to improve their ability to gain better control over their disability through the feedback. The only concern was when it was removed, would improvement carry over to a non-enhanced environment (w/o supportive sound cues relating to eye position and movement).

6. Knapp, R. B. & Lusted, H. S. (1990). A Bioelectric Controller for Computer Music Applications. Computer Music Journal, 14(1), Spring 1990, 42-47.

a. Summary: Early paper dealing with a 'biomouse' which used EEG signals mapped to MIDI sounds. The result is a possible live playing instrument of the human body. Explains the technical design and signal processing considerations. The 'biomouse' intakes 4 signals; EEG, Eye movements, muscle movements, audio. The outputs; pitch, velocity, timbre, rhythm, other. Original exploratory uses include helping medical patients not become 'bored' in surgery down-time.

7. Rosenboom, D. (1990). The Performing Brain. Computer Music Journal, 14(1), Spring 1990, 48-66.

a. Summary: Historical references from the 1970's discussing spontaneous generation of music. Expresses criticism for biomouse and EEG methods to create music. Describes SQUID (superconducting quantum interference devices) as able to detect localized neuromagnetic fields as promising. {Squid's seem to be an arrayed version our the NSI electrode}

8. Jan Borchers Assoc. Prof. Stanford / prev. Linz, Ulm Music algorithm using random numbers for worldbeat music

9. Niels Birbaumer, German psychologist, brain waves received from skull electrodes Patient's name: Hans-Peter Salzmann. Device allowed words spelled by moving cursor over them.

10. R. Benjamin Knapp, PhD MOTO Development Group. Computer Music Journal, MIT, Spring Issue 1990 (Rosenboum published same issue also) Scientific American

11. The Structure of emotion : psychophysiological, cognitive and clinical aspects / edited by Niels Birbaumer, Arne Ohman. Author: Call Number: BF531 .S84 1993. Year: 1993.

12. Biofeedback and self-regulation / edited by Niels Birbaumer, H. D. Kimmel. Author: Call Number: BF319.5 .B5 B553. Year: 1979. Periodicals

13. Computer music journal.


URL's mentions work With a Atau Tonaka who is touring with the BioMouse html