A Hierarchical Framework of Cloud Resource Allocation and Power Management Using Deep Reinforcement Learning
Ning Liu, Zhe Li, Zhiyuan Xu, Jielong Xu, Sheng Lin, Qinru Qiu, Jian Tang and Yanzhi Wang
Syracuse University, Syracuse University, Syracuse University, Syracuse University, Syracuse University, Syracuse University, Syracuse University, Syracuse University

Automatic decision-making approaches, such as reinforcement learning (RL), have been applied to (partially) solve the resource allocation problem adaptively in the cloud computing system. However, a complete cloud resource allocation framework exhibits high dimensions in state and action spaces, which prohibit the usefulness of traditional RL techniques. In addition, high power consumption has become one of the critical concerns in design and control of cloud computing systems, which degrades system reliability and increases cooling cost. An effective dynamic power management (DPM) policy should minimize power consumption while maintaining performance degradation within an acceptable level. Thus, a joint virtual machine (VM) resource allocation and power management framework are critical to the overall cloud computing system. Moreover, novel solution framework is necessary to address the even higher dimensions in state and action spaces. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical framework for solving the overall resource allocation and power management problem in cloud computing systems. The proposed hierarchical framework comprises a global tier for VM resource allocation to the servers and a local tier for distributed power management of local servers. The emerging deep reinforcement learning (DRL) technique, which can deal with complicated control problems with large state space, is adopted to solve the global tier problem. Furthermore, an autoencoder and a novel weight sharing structure are adopted to handle the high-dimensional state space and accelerate the convergence speed. On the other hand, the local tier of distributed server power managements comprises an LSTM based workload predictor and a model-free RL based power manager, operating in a distributed manner. Experiment results using actual Google cluster traces show that our proposed hierarchical framework significantly saves the power consumption and energy usage than the baseline while achieving no severe latency degradation. Meanwhile, the proposed framework can achieve the best trade-off between latency and power/energy consumption in a server cluster.